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Review of linguistics
Huang chunli

Demands for final exam
? 1.满分: 100 分。保持卷面整洁,否则扣 卷面 1分。 ? 2.交卷时请将试题卷与答题卷一起交,否则 扣分。 ? 3.学生必须将姓名、班级、学号完整填写在 规定的密封栏目内,否则视为废卷。 ? 4.学生必须签到,否则出现遗漏由学生本人 负责。 ? 5.仔细阅读试题和答题要求,按试题编号在 答题纸上作答,作答在试卷上无效。

The exam items
? Ⅰ. multiple choice 10分
? 10个 1分一个

? Ⅱ. decide T or F 10分
? 10个 1分一个

? Ⅲ. filling the blanks. 10分
? 10个 1分一个

? Ⅳ. language facts analysis 50分
? 8个左右小题,根据所学语言学知识和原理分析语言材料。

? Ⅴ. questions 20分
? 3个问题,简明回答。

Chapter one
? Saussure’s work Course in General Linguistics marked the beginning of modern linguistics

A.K Halliday
? ? ? ? Three broad functions Ideational Interpersonal textual

Properties of language
? ? ? ? ? Arbitrariness Duality Productivity Cultural transmission displacement

Some distinctive concepts
? ? ? ? Prescriptive and descriptive Synchronic and diachronic Langue and parole Competence and performance

Chapter two
? ? ? ? Three branches of phonetics: Articulatory phonetics Auditory phonetics Acoustic phonetics

vocal cords
? “voiceless”---When the vocal cords are drawn wide apart, letting air go through without causing vibration. ? “voiced” --- Vibration of the vocal cords results in a quality of speech sounds ---a feature of all vowels and some consonants;

The phonetic properties of consonants
? The places of articulation ? The manners of articulation

? The phonetic description of the consonants
? P31 table

The phonetic properties of vowels
? ? ? ? Hight mid low Front central back Rounded or unrounded Long short

Chapter three
? Phonology and phonetics(p40)
? Similarity--? Difference--? Relation---

? Minimal pair 最小对立体(p42) ? Complementary distribution (p44-46)

Distinctive features p43-44
? ? ? ? ? /p, t, k/ [-voiced] /b, d, g/ [+voiced] Fricatives / f, v,θ, ?,s,z, ?, ?/ [+continuant] Approximants /l,r,h/ Stops /p,b,t,d,k,g/ Nasals /m,n,g/ [-continuant]

? Syllable (syllable structures P52) ? Stress (word stress P53)

Chapter four

Grammatical(function) words and lexical(content) words
? Those which express grammatical (functional ) meanings, are grammatical (function) words, such as, conjunctions, prepositions, articles, and pronouns.
? Those which have lexical meanings, that is, those which refer to substance, action, and quality, are lexical (content) words, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.

Types of morphemes(69-71)
? 1.Free morphemes and bound morphemes ? 2. Roots, affixes and stems ? 3.inflectional morphemes and derivational morphemes

Word-formation(p71-83)
? Major processes
? ? ? ? Inflection Compounding or composition Derivation or affixation Conversion

Chapter five
? ? ? ? ? ? ? Word class (lexical categories) Major lexical categories N Noun V Verb A Adjective P Preposition ADV Adverb

Phrase
? ? ? ? ? ? NP VP AP PP ADVP Headwords(p90)

Clauses and Sentences

?

subject predicate

?S
?

IC (immediate constituents) Analysis
? The technique of breaking up sentences into smaller units by making successive binary cutting is called IC analysis.(P91)

? Tree diagram

? ? NP ? ? Det ? ? N

S VP V Det NP N

? The student

reads

a

book.

Seven clause patterns P95
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1. SV 2. SVO 3. SVCs 4. SVAs 5. SVOiOd 6. SVOCo 7. SVOAo

Grammatical categories p97
? Tenses and Aspects 时体 ? past ? Tenses present ? future ? perfective ? Aspects ? progressive

? Case 格P96-97

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Semantic roles of clause elements P101-103
Agent: Patient: Recipient: Beneficiary Experiencer: Instrument: Time: Location:

Chapter seven

? semantic triangles ? THOUGHT/REFERENCE (CONCEPT)

? SYMBOL/FORM

REFERENT

? Synonymy---it refers to the sameness or similarity of meaning. ? Synonyms--- the words are close in meaning. ? ? ? Synonyms ? ? dialectal stylistic emotional collocational semantical

? Antonymy---it refers to the oppositeness of meaning. ? Antonyms---words are opposite in meaning. ? ? Antonyms ? ? gradable complementary relational reverse

? Hyponymy---it refers to the sense relation between a more general and a more specific word.
? Superordinate---the more general word ? Hyponyms---the specific words ? Co-hyponyms---hyponyms of the same superordinate

?
?
?

food
Fruit
apple banana orange

meat
beef pork mutton

vegetable
cabbage cucumber tomato

? “bird”, “instrument”

? Homonymy---it refers to the phenomenon that words having different meanings have the same sound or spelling, or in both. ? ? homophones: two words are
? ? Homonymy ? ? ? ? identical in sound. homographs: two words are identical in spelling. complete homonyms: two words are identical both in sound and spelling.

Analysis of word meaning 7.4
? A. Componential Analysis---a way to analyze lexical meaning (CA)

? ? ? ?

Woman [-MALE] [+ADULT] [+HUMAN] Bachelor [+MALE] [+ADULT] [+HUMAN] [-MARRIED] Wife [-MALE] [+ADULT] [+HUMAN] [+MARRIED]

Sense relations between sentences
? 1) X is equivalent with Y.(X has the same meaning of Y.)
? 2) X is contradictory with Y.

? 3) X entails Y. (we know that X then automatically Y. ) ? Entailment is a relation of inclusion. If X entails Y, then the meaning of X is included in Y.

? 4) X presupposes Y. (Y is a prerequisite or background of X.)
? 5) X is contradiction. (X is inconsistent with itself. i.e. asserts and denies the same thing)

? 6) X is semantically anomalous. (X is absurd in sense.)

7.6
?

pragmatics

pragmatics is the study of those relations between language and context (p150)

?

Context

CP cooperation principle 合作原 则

Four maxims of CP
? the maxim of quantity ? (make your information as required, not less or more than need) ? the maxim of quality ? Do not say what you believe false or lack adequate evidence ? the maxim of relation ? Be relevant ? the maxim of manner ? Avoid obscurity or ambiguity

Conversational implicatures (会话含义)
? When conversationers intentionally violate one of the four maxims of the CP, conversational implicatures produced. ? Seeing examples on p152-155

温馨提示
? 1. 认真复习所学章节(每页内容都仔细看) 特别 是本PPT指示内容; ? 2. 阅读每章节最后的summary 小结; ? 3. 熟悉书上图表,例子; ? 4. 灵活性分析性理解知识点和原理。




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